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What is Microprocessor ?
Today in this article “What is Microprocessor” we will try to know that what is Microprocessor exactly?, use of Microprocessor , structure of general microprocessor etc.
With the development of semiconductor technology, unprecedented success has been achieved in reducing the size of the computer. Today computer systems can be easily obtained in the form of integrated circuits at very low cost. This integrated form of computer is called Microprocessor and computers built using microprocessor are called microprocessor. Click here to read this article in hindi
Presently 8 bit and 16 bit microprocessors are being widely used. Intel 8085 and Intel 8088 are very popular in this category of microprocessor. 8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor and 8088 is a 16-bit microprocessor. Other available microprocessors are intel 8086, Zilog 80 and motorola 6800. In this article, we will learn about the basic structure of microprocessor. The working principle of all microprocessors is the same. The main difference between these is in instruction set, hardware structure and memory structure.
Architecture of a General microprocessor
Microprocessor is a digital device. It fetches instruction from memory and decodes and executes them. The microprocessor performs arithmetic and logical operations. It receives the data from the input devices and transmits the result to the output devices by performing the desired operation on the data. For all these functions, the microprocessor interfaces with memory and input/output devices (I/O devices). The block diagram of a computer is shown in the photo below.
- (I) The input devices that feed data into the CPU are A/D converter, tape reader, card reader, key board, etc. and the main output devices are D/A converter, card and paper tape punch, printers, etc.
- (II) All arithmetic and logical operations are completed in CPU. This unit is called microprocessor. All the operations of the CPU are controlled by clock pulses. A microprocessor is an integrated circuit (IC) designed to be used as a CPU in a computer.
- (III) Computer programs and data are stored in memory. These are usually ROMs and RAMs chips. The memory can be based on bipolar or MOS technology. The instruction word of microprocessor consists of 4, 8 or 16 bits. The 8-bit term called byte is most commonly used.
Elements of Microprocessor
The main parts of a microprocessor are shown in the photo below. The main components of microprocessor are arithmetic and logical unit (ALU), registers, control unit, address and data lines and other control lines etc.
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