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What is TCP/IP ?
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a set of communication protocols that are used to connect network devices on the internet. In a private computer network, TCP/IP is also used as a communications protocol (an intranet or extranet).
TCP/IP refers to the full IP suite, which includes a set of rules and procedures. TCP and IP are the two most common protocols, although the suite also includes others. Between internet applications and the routing and switching fabric, the TCP/IP protocol suite serves as an abstraction layer.
TCP/IP defines how data is exchanged over the internet by defining end-to-end communications that define how packets should be broken down, addressed, transported, routed, and received at their destination. TCP/IP is a network protocol that requires little central control and is meant to make networks more dependable by allowing them to automatically recover from the failure of any device on the network.
The IP suite’s two major protocols have distinct functions. TCP specifies how apps might establish communication channels across a network. It also controls how a message is broken down into smaller packets and sent over the internet, where it is reassembled in the correct order at the destination address.
IP specifies how each packet should be addressed and routed to ensure that it arrives at its intended destination. To identify where the message should be forwarded, each gateway computer on the network verifies this IP address.
A subnet mask tells a computer or other network device which part of an IP address represents the network and which part represents hosts or other computers on the network.
IP addresses are virtualized by network address translation (NAT). NAT can assist a company increase security while also reducing the number of IP addresses required.
The following are some common TCP/IP protocols:
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) :
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol that allows a web server and a web browser to communicate.
HTTP Secure is a protocol that allows a web server and a web browser to communicate securely.
File Transfer Protocol:
The File Transfer Protocol is used to send files between computers.
What is TCP/IP and how does it work?
TCP/IP is based on the client-server model of communication, in which another computer (a server) on the network provides a service to a user or machine (a client), such as transmitting a webpage.
The TCP/IP suite of protocols is characterised as stateless, which means that each client request is treated as unique and unconnected to prior ones. Being stateless allows network paths to be reused indefinitely.
The transport layer, on the other hand, is stateful. It sends a single message and maintains its connection until all of the packets in the message are received and reassembled at the destination.
The TCP/IP model is slightly different from the seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking model that followed it. The OSI reference model specifies how apps communicate over the internet.
What is the significance of TCP/IP?
TCP/IP is a nonproprietary protocol that cannot be controlled by a single business. As a result, the IP suite can be readily updated. It can communicate with any other system because it is compatible with all operating systems (OSes). The IP suite works with a wide range of computer systems and networks.
TCP/IP is a highly scalable protocol that can select the most efficient path over the network because it is a routable protocol. It’s a popular choice in today’s internet architecture.
The TCP/IP model’s four layers:
TCP/IP is separated into four layers, each of which has its own set of protocols:
- Application layer:The application layer allows apps to share data in a standardised manner. HTTP, FTP, Post Office Protocol 3, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, and Simple Network Management Protocol are among its protocols. The payload is the actual application data at the application layer.
- Transport layer: The transport layer is in charge of maintaining network-wide end-to-end communication. TCP manages host-to-host communication while also providing flow control, multiplexing, and dependability. TCP and User Datagram Protocol are two transport protocols that are sometimes used instead of TCP for particular applications.
- Network layer: The network layer, often known as the internet layer, deals with packets and connects disparate networks in order to convey data over network boundaries. IP and the Internet Control Message Protocol, which is used for error reporting, are network layer protocols.
- Physical layer: The physical layer, also known as the network interface layer or data link layer, is made up of protocols that only work on a link, which is the network component that connects nodes or hosts. Ethernet for local area networks and Address Resolution Protocol are among the protocols on this tier.
TCP/IP can be used to allow remote login across the network for interactive file transfer, email delivery, web page delivery, and remote access to a server host’s file system. It is most commonly used to describe how data changes shape as it travels from the concrete physical layer to the abstract application layer through a network. It explains the core protocols, or communication methods, at each layer as data travels through.
TCP/ IP’s advantages and disadvantages
The following are some of the benefits of adopting the TCP/IP model:
- Helps establish a connection between many types of computers.
- Works independently of the operating system.
- Supports a variety of routing protocols.
- Employs a highly scalable client-server architecture.
- Can be run independently.
- It is lightweight and does not put undue load on a network or computer.
- Iit supports numerous routing protocols.
The following are some of TCP/ IP’s drawbacks:
- It’s difficult to set up and manage.
- TCP/ IP’s transport layer does not guarantee packet delivery.
- It is difficult to replace protocols in TCP/IP.
- It does not clearly separate the concepts of services, interfaces, and protocols, making it unsuitable for describing new technologies in new networks.
- And it is particularly vulnerable to a synchronisation attack, a type of denial-of-service attack in which a bad actor uses TCP/IP.
What is the difference between TCP/IP and IP?
There are many distinctions between TCP/IP and IP. IP, for example, is a low-level internet protocol that makes data transmission across the internet easier. Its goal is to transport data packets that include a header with routing information such as the data’s source and destination, as well as the data payload itself.
The quantity of data that IP can send is limited. A single IP data packet, which includes both the header and the data, might be anywhere between 20 and 24 bytes long. Longer strings of data must be divided into many data packets, each of which must be delivered separately and then reorganized into the correct order afterward.
Because IP is purely a data send/receive protocol, there is no built-in verification that the data packets sent were received.
TCP/IP, in contrast to IP, is a higher-level smart communications protocol capable of doing more. TCP/IP links computers, apps, webpages, and web servers while still using IP to carry data packets. TCP has a comprehensive understanding of the whole streams of data that these assets require to function, and it ensures that the entire volume of data required is transferred the first time. TCP also performs checks to guarantee that the data is delivered correctly.
TCP may regulate the amount and flow rate of data as it performs its tasks. It ensures that networks are clear of congestion that could prevent data from being received.
An application that wants to deliver a big amount of data via the internet is an example. The data would have to be split into many IP packets if the application just used IP. Because IP requests are given per packet, this would necessitate numerous requests to deliver and receive data.
TCP requires only a single request to send a full data stream; TCP takes care of the rest. Unlike IP, TCP can detect issues in IP and request the retransmission of any missing data packets.
TCP can also reorder packets so that they are sent in the correct order, reducing network congestion. TCP/IP facilitates data transmission across the internet.
TCP/IP model vs OSI model:
The most extensively used communication networking protocols are TCP/IP and OSI. The fundamental distinction is that OSI is a conceptual model that is not used for communication in practise. Rather, it establishes the means by which apps can communicate across a network. TCP/IP, on the other hand, is commonly used for establishing connections and interacting with networks.
The TCP/IP protocols set the foundation for the internet, whereas the OSI model specifies how communication should be carried out. TCP/IP is thus a more practical model.
There are similarities and contrasts between the TCP/IP and OSI models. The biggest similarity is in the manner they are built, as both employ layers, however TCP/IP only has four layers, whereas the OSI model has seven:
When a user — software or human — wishes to read messages, transfer files, or engage in other network-related activities, Application layer allows them to communicate with the application or network.
Presentation layer converts or prepares data for the application layer according to the app’s semantics or syntax.
This establishes, coordinates, and terminates app-to-app communication.
often known as the Transport layer, is responsible for moving data over a network while also providing error-checking and data flow controls.
sometimes known as the Network layer, is responsible for moving data into and out of other networks.
often known as the Data link layer, deals with issues that arise as a result of bit transmission mistakes.
Data is transported utilising electrical, mechanical, or procedural interfaces in Layer 1.
The application layer is the top layer in both the TCP/IP and OSI models. Despite the fact that this layer performs the same tasks in each model, the tasks may differ depending on the data it gets.
Because each model operates using a network layer and a transport layer, the functions performed in each model are also comparable. Data packets are often transmitted using the TCP/IP and OSI frameworks. They will arrive at their goals despite the fact that they will do so in various ways and on different paths.
Similarities between the TCP/IP and OSI models:
The following are some of the similarities between the TCP/IP and OSI models:
- Both of these are logical models.
- They are the ones who set networking standards.
- Layers are used to segregate the network communication process.
- They provide frameworks for developing and deploying networking devices and standards.
- They make it possible for one company to create devices and network components that can coexist and work with those created by other manufacturers.
Differences between the TCP/IP and OSI models:
The following are some of the differences between the TCP/IP and OSI models:
- TCP/IP uses only one layer (application) to specify the top levels’ functionality, whereas OSI uses three layers (application, presentation and session).
- TCP/IP defines the functionality of the bottom layers with a single layer (physical), whereas OSI employs two layers (physical and data link).
- TCP/IP headers are 20 bytes long, while OSI headers are 5 bytes long.
- TCP/IP is a protocol-oriented standard, whereas the OSI model is a generic paradigm based on each layer’s functionality.
- TCP/IP takes a horizontal approach, whereas OSI takes a vertical one.
- In the case of TCP/IP, the protocols came first, followed by the model. In OSI, the model was created first, followed by the protocols for each layer.
- TCP/IP aids in the connecting of various types of computers, whereas OSI aids in the standardisation of routers, switches, motherboards, and other hardware.
History of TCP/IP:
The TCP/IP architecture was developed in the 1970s by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a research arm of the US Department of Defense, for use in ARPANET, a wide-area network that predated the internet. TCP/IP was created for the Unix operating system and has since been incorporated into all subsequent operating systems.
The Internet Engineering Task Force presently maintains the TCP/IP paradigm and related protocols.